Defense and National Security

  • Report

    Illustrative Options for National Defense Under a Smaller Defense Budget

    CBO examined three broad options for reconfiguring the military if funding for the Department of Defense was reduced by $1 trillion (in 2022 dollars), or 14 percent, over the next 10 years.

  • Report

    Alternative Approaches to Adjusting Military Cash Pay

    CBO examines the implications of adjusting military basic pay with an alternative wage index and adjusting all components of regular cash pay with the employment cost index.

  • Report

    The Capacity of the Navy’s Shipyards to Maintain Its Submarines

    The Navy’s shipyards have experienced significant delays in completing maintenance on submarines. In this report, CBO projects that required maintenance will continue to exceed the shipyards’ capacity and examines options to reduce delays.

  • Report

    Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2021 to 2030

    CBO periodically issues a compendium of policy options and their effects on the federal budget. This document provides estimates of the budgetary savings from 83 options that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues.

  • Report

    Costs of Creating a Space National Guard

    CBO examines two options for establishing a Space National Guard to support active component Space Force personnel, estimating the additional costs beyond those incurred for existing Air and Army National Guard units that have space-related missions.

  • Report

    Options for Fielding Ground-Launched Long-Range Missiles

    This report examines some of the challenges U.S. forces might face in a conflict in the Baltic region or the South China Sea and options for mitigating those challenges by procuring and fielding ground-launched long-range missiles.

  • Report

    Alternatives for Modernizing the Navy’s Sealift Force

    CBO estimates that the Navy’s plan to modernize and operate its sealift ships over the next 30 years would cost roughly $39 billion. In this report, CBO explores four alternatives that would vary in cost from $34 billion to $40 billion.

  • Report

    Accounting for Federal Retirement and Veterans' Benefits: Cash and Accrual Measures

    CBO examines the differences between cash and accrual accounting for federal retirement and veterans’ benefits, the information that the two types of estimates provide, and ways to expand the use of accrual measures for such benefits.

  • Report

    The Personnel Requirements and Costs of New Military Space Organizations

    CBO estimates the added personnel requirements and costs of five kinds of military space organizations. DoD wants to create three, which could increase annual costs by $1 billion to $2 billion and require onetime startup costs of $2 billion to $5 billion.

  • Report

    Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2019 to 2028

    CBO periodically issues a volume of options—this year’s installment presents 121—that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues. CBO’s website allows users to filter options by topic, date, and other categories.

  • Report

    Approaches for Managing the Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2017 to 2046

    CBO estimates that the Obama Administration’s 2017 plans for nuclear forces would cost $1.2 trillion (in 2017 dollars) over the 2017–2046 period. CBO analyzed nine options that would reduce those costs or delay some of them.

  • Report

    Approaches to Changing Military Health Care

    CBO examined possible changes to the Department of Defense’s Military Health System, analyzing the effects of those changes on the federal budget, the quality of military health care, and preparedness for wartime missions.

  • Report

    Scanning and Imaging Shipping Containers Overseas: Costs and Alternatives

    Scanning and imaging all U.S.-bound shipping containers at overseas ports would cost $12 billion to $32 billion over 10 years, CBO estimates. Boosting the number of containers imaged at U.S. ports instead would cost considerably less.

  • Report

    Replacing Military Personnel in Support Positions With Civilian Employees

    The Defense Department could cut federal costs by replacing some military personnel in support positions with civilian employees. If DoD replaced 80,000 military personnel, it could eventually save $3.1 billion to $5.7 billion annually.

  • Report

    Preserving the Navy’s Forward Presence With a Smaller Fleet

    The Navy can sustain its forward presence under smaller shipbuilding budgets by using longer deployments, more overseas basing, and more rotating crews. But those methods would offset some of the savings and have other disadvantages.

  • Report

    Veterans' Disability Compensation: Trends and Policy Options

    From 2000 to 2013, the number of veterans receiving VA disability payments rose by nearly 55 percent, and spending for those benefits almost tripled. How might changes in VA's disability compensation program affect the federal budget?

  • Report

    Approaches to Reducing Federal Spending on Military Health Care

    Between 2000 and 2012, the cost of providing health care to service members, retirees, and their families increased by 130 percent (after adjusting for inflation). What approaches might curtail the growth in those costs?

  • Report

    The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle Program and Alternatives

    CBO compares the Army’s plan for the GCV with four options and finds that, although no option would meet all of the Army’s goals, all are likely to be less costly and pose a smaller risk of delay than CBO expects for the Army’s plan.

  • Report

    Approaches for Scaling Back the Defense Department’s Budget Plans

    The costs of the Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) budget plans through 2021 would be much higher than the funding permitted under the Budget Control Act’s statutory caps. CBO examined four options to cut back on DoD’s forces and activities.

  • Report

    Costs of Military Pay and Benefits in the Defense Budget

    For fiscal year 2013, the Department of Defense (DoD) requested about $150 billion to fund the pay and benefits of current and retired members of the military. That amount is more than one-quarter of DoD’s total base budget request.