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According to the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995, federal mandates include requirements imposed on state, local, or tribal governments or on entities in the private sector that are not conditions of aid or tied to participation in voluntary federal programs. CBO identifies such mandates in bills that are approved by authorizing committees (and, when requested, for other legislation) and provides an estimate of the costs associated with the mandates.

  • Report

    CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    May 10, 2016

    CBO reviews hundreds of bills and public laws for intergovernmental and private-sector mandates each year and estimates whether the annual costs of those mandates would exceed thresholds established in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  • Report

    A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2014 Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    March 31, 2015

    Sixteen laws enacted in 2014 contain intergovernmental mandates and 26 contain private-sector mandates. Of the 539 bills that CBO analyzed in 2014, 47 contained intergovernmental mandates and 75 contained private-sector mandates.

  • Report

    Private-Sector Mandates in Federal Legislation

    January 15, 2013

    CBO analyzes pending federal legislation and enacted laws to identify private-sector mandates, which are enforceable duties imposed on entities in the private sector. About 12% of the laws enacted between 2001 and 2011 impose such mandates.

  • Report

    Intergovernmental Mandates in Federal Legislation

    July 14, 2009

    UMRA took effect in 1996; since then the Congress has enacted few federal mandates, as defined in the law, that have imposed significant costs on state and local governments.