According to the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995, federal mandates include requirements imposed on state, local, or tribal governments or on entities in the private sector that are not conditions of aid or tied to participation in voluntary federal programs. CBO identifies such mandates in bills that are approved by authorizing committees (and, when requested, for other legislation) and provides an estimate of the costs associated with the mandates.

  • Report

    CBO reviews hundreds of bills and public laws for intergovernmental and private-sector mandates each year and estimates whether the annual costs of those mandates would exceed thresholds established in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. Data are available for calendar years 2013 through 2019, and new data are added periodically throughout the year.