State and Local Governments

The federal government provides financial support for state and local governments, imposes restrictions on the activities of those governments, and offers incentives for those governments to undertake or not undertake certain activities. CBO examines those policies and assesses the costs of any mandates that would be imposed by legislation reported by Congressional committees.

  • Report May 10, 2016

    CBO reviews hundreds of bills and public laws for intergovernmental and private-sector mandates each year and estimates whether the annual costs of those mandates would exceed thresholds established in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  • Report March 31, 2015

    Sixteen laws enacted in 2014 contain intergovernmental mandates and 26 contain private-sector mandates. Of the 539 bills that CBO analyzed in 2014, 47 contained intergovernmental mandates and 75 contained private-sector mandates.

  • Report March 2, 2015

    This report provides information on spending by federal, state, and local governments for transportation and water infrastructure, which totaled $416 billion in 2014.

  • Report December 18, 2013

    In 2012, the federal government spent $531 billion on investment—for physical capital; research and development; and education and training—which represented 15 percent of federal spending and 3 percent of GDP.

  • Report March 5, 2013

    In 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments, accounting for 17 percent of federal outlays and a quarter of spending by states and localities. Nearly half of that amount was for Medicaid.

  • Report May 4, 2011

    CBO discusses two approaches to calculating the present value of a plans liabilities.