CBO reviews hundreds of bills and public laws for intergovernmental and private-sector mandates each year and estimates whether the annual costs of those mandates would exceed thresholds established in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. Data are available for calendar years 2013 through 2018, and new data are added periodically throughout the year.
State and Local Governments
Sixty percent of state and local investment in transportation and water infrastructure is financed using tools that impose costs on the federal government: tax-exempt bonds, tax credit bonds, state banks, and direct federal credit programs.
In 2017, spending by federal, state, and local governments for transportation and water infrastructure totaled $441 billion. This slide deck updates information that CBO released in 2015.