Outlook for the Budget and the Economy

CBO's Budget and Economic Outlook, typically produced in January each year and updated in August, includes an economic forecast and projections of spending and revenues under current law—known as baseline projections—over the next 10 years. CBO also updates its budget projections each spring in conjunction with its analysis of the President's budgetary proposals. By showing outcomes if current laws generally remained in place, the baseline projections provide the Congress with a benchmark against which to measure the effects of proposed changes in spending and tax laws. CBO also analyzes the long-term budget outlook.


(As of )


$5.8 Trillion


$3.5 Trillion


$2.3 Trillion

DEBT HELD BY THE PUBLIC (End of Fiscal Year)

$22.5 Trillion


(As of )



INFLATION (PCE Price Index, Q4/Q4)




INTEREST RATE (3-Month Treasury Bills, Q4)


  • Report

    This document provides additional information about the baseline budget projections that CBO released on February 11, 2021.

  • Report

    CBO presents its projections of the federal budget for the next 30 years if current laws governing taxes and spending generally did not change. Growth in revenues would be outpaced by growth in spending, leading to rising deficits and debt.

  • Report

    This document provides additional information on the economic forecast that CBO initially released on February 1, 2021.

  • Report

    If current laws governing taxes and spending generally remain unchanged, CBO projects, in 2021, the federal budget deficit will total $2.3 trillion, federal debt will reach 102 percent of GDP, and real GDP will grow by 3.7 percent.

  • Report

    CBO presents its projections of what federal deficits, debt, spending, and revenues would be for the next 30 years if current laws governing taxes and spending generally did not change.

  • Report

    CBO projects a federal budget deficit of $3.3 trillion in 2020, more than triple the shortfall recorded in 2019, mostly because of the economic disruption caused by the 2020 coronavirus pandemic and the enactment of legislation in response.

  • Report

    CBO projects that from 2020 to 2030, annual real GDP will be 3.4 percent lower, on average, than it projected in January. The annual unemployment rate, which was projected to average 4.2 percent, is now projected to average 6.1 percent.

  • Blog Post

    This afternoon I briefed the press about the Congressional Budget Office’s new report, The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2020 to 2030. It shows deficits that are slightly larger over the next 10 years and notably larger over the next 30 years than those that CBO previously projected.

  • Report

    In CBO’s projections of the outlook under current law, deficits remain large by historical standards, federal debt grows to 98 percent of GDP by 2030, and the economy expands at an average annual rate of 1.7 percent from 2021 to 2030.

  • Report

    In this report, CBO provides information about how its most recent budget projections would change under alternative assumptions about future fiscal policies and estimates the possible budgetary outcomes.