Federal revenues come largely from individual income taxes and payroll taxes, with corporate income taxes and other taxes playing smaller roles. CBO projects future federal revenues under current law, estimates the distribution of income and federal taxes, and analyzes the effects of various features of the federal tax system and potential changes to that system. (A separate page on the Budget provides information about a broader set of CBO's work in that area.)

  • Report November 19, 2015

    In 2016, low- and moderate-income workers will face an effective marginal tax rate of 31 percent, on average. Federal individual income and payroll taxes will be the main contributors.

  • Report November 10, 2015

    CBO's revenue projections since 1982 have, on average, been a bit too high—more so for projections spanning six years than for those spanning two—but their overall accuracy has been similar to that of the projections of other agencies.

  • Report October 26, 2015

    In CBO’s updated analysis, extraordinary measures for borrowing additional funds without breaching the debt ceiling will be exhausted and the Treasury’s cash balance is likely to fall below $30 billion in the first few days of November.

  • Report October 14, 2015

    If the debt limit remains unchanged, CBO projects, the Treasury’s cash balance will be entirely depleted sometime in the first half of November, at which time the government would be unable to fully pay its obligations.

  • Report August 25, 2015

    CBO expects that the deficit this year will be $426 billion––$60 billion less than projected in March. The economy is expected to expand modestly this year, at a solid pace in 2016 and 2017, and at a more moderate pace in subsequent years.  

  • Report March 12, 2015

    CBO projects the President’s budget would result in deficits totaling $6.0 trillion between 2016 and 2025, $1.2 trillion less than under CBO’s current-law baseline. By 2025, debt would total about $1 trillion less than in CBO’s baseline.

  • Report January 26, 2015

    Under current law, the deficit is projected to hold steady as a percentage of GDP through 2018, but rise thereafter, raising the already high federal debt. The rate of economic growth is projected to be solid in 2015 and the next few years.

  • Report December 18, 2014

    On average, the effective marginal tax rate on capital income is 18 percent, but that rate varies significantly by sector. In this report, CBO estimates effective rates under current law and eight policy options.

  • Report November 20, 2014

    CBO periodically issues a compendium of options—this installment presents 79—to inform lawmakers about the budgetary effects of ways to reduce the deficit. The report has both interactive and printable formats.

  • Report November 12, 2014

    In 2011, households in the top, middle, and bottom quintiles received 52, 14, and 5 percent of the nation's before-tax income, respectively; the shares of federal taxes paid by those households were 69, 9, and 1 percent.

  • Report December 20, 2013

    Federal debt is projected to rise significantly over the long term. What policy changes could reduce future deficits and thus lower the trajectory of federal debt? What criteria might be used to evaluate those policy changes?

  • Report November 7, 2013

    CBO analyzes the distribution of most federal spending—including transfers such as Social Security benefits—and almost all federal revenues among U.S. households in 2006. Results are provided by type of household and by income group.

  • Report May 29, 2013

    In 2013, the benefits of 10 of the largest tax expenditures will equal 11.7 percent of income for households in the lowest income quintile, 9.4 percent for the highest quintile, and under 8 percent for the middle quintiles, CBO estimates.