Taxes

Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2017 to 2026 CBO periodically issues a volume of options—this year’s installment presents 115—that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues over the next decade. The report is available both as a PDF and in a searchable format.
Taxes
Federal Housing Assistance for Low-Income Households CBO describes federal housing assistance to low-income households and how it has changed since 2000, provides information about the households that receive assistance, and assesses options for altering that assistance.
Taxes
Taxing Capital Income: Effective Marginal Tax Rates Under 2014 Law and Selected Policy Options On average, the effective marginal tax rate on capital income is 18 percent, but that rate varies significantly by sector. In this report, CBO estimates effective rates under current law and eight policy options.
Taxes
Federal Policies and Innovation The federal government influences innovation through two broad channels: spending and tax policies, and the legal and regulatory systems. Policymakers have a number of options for spurring additional innovation.
Taxes
Answers to Questions From Senator Hatch About Various Options for Payroll Taxes and Social Security CBO examined the implications of various approaches to altering the Social Security payroll tax rates as well as the taxable maximum (the maximum amount of earnings on which those payroll taxes are imposed).
Taxes
Testimony on the Status of the Highway Trust Fund and Options for Financing Highway Spending With its current revenue sources, the Highway Trust Fund cannot support spending at the current rate. The fund’s projected shortfalls have generated increased interest in borrowing by state and local governments to finance highway projects.
Taxes
The Effects of a Minimum-Wage Increase on Employment and Family Income Raising the minimum wage would increase family income for many low-wage workers, moving some of them out of poverty. But some jobs for low-wage workers would probably be eliminated and the income of those workers would fall substantially.
Taxes
Choices for Deficit Reduction: An Update

Federal debt is projected to rise significantly over the long term. What policy changes could reduce future deficits and thus lower the trajectory of federal debt? What criteria might be used to evaluate those policy changes?

Taxes
Health-Related Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2014 to 2023 This document is a reprint of Chapter 5 of CBO's publication Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2014 to 2023 (November 2013).
Taxes
Effects of a Carbon Tax on the Economy and the Environment A carbon tax’s effect on the economy depends on how lawmakers would use revenues generated by the tax. The tax would help reduce U.S. emissions but would have only a modest effect on the Earth’s climate without a worldwide effort.
Taxes
Testimony on Using the Chained CPI to Index Social Security, Other Federal Programs, and the Tax Code for Inflation How does the chained consumer price index (CPI) differ from the traditional CPI and what would be the budgetary effects of using the chained CPI to make automatic adjustments in Social Security, other federal programs, and the tax code?
Taxes
Options for Taxing U.S. Multinational Corporations How the federal government taxes U.S. multinational corporations has consequences for the U.S. economy and for the federal budget.
Taxes
Taxing Businesses Through the Individual Income Tax

Since the individual income tax was instituted in 1913, the profits of most businesses have been allocated, or “passed through,” to their owners and subjected to that tax—rather than to the corporate income tax.

Taxes
Unemployment Insurance in the Wake of the Recent Recession Between 2007 and 2010, unemployment benefits expanded nearly five-fold owing to high unemployment due to the weak economy, and decisions by policymakers to increase the number of weeks for which unemployed workers could receive benefits.
Taxes
Choices for Deficit Reduction

Are fiscal rules a useful tool for achieving budgetary goals? View the appendix of this report to learn more.

Taxes
The Taxation of Capital and Labor Through the Self-Employment Tax CBO analyzed three options that would modify the way that income for the self-employed would be taxed.
Taxes
Effects of Federal Tax Credits for the Purchase of Electric Vehicles CBO's report assesses how the credits affect the relative cost of owning an electric vehicle, and how cost-effectively the credits reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Taxes
Raising the Excise Tax on Cigarettes: Effects on Health and the Federal Budget CBO has analyzed the impact of a hypothetical increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes to demonstrate the complex links between policies that aim to improve health and effects on the federal budget.
Taxes
Costs and Policy Options for Federal Student Loan Programs This CBO study compares the budgetary and fair-value costs of the federal student loan programs. It also looks at several options for modifying those programs.
Taxes