In 2018, 46 million people living in the United States—or 14 percent of the population—had been born in other countries. CBO examines the employment and earnings of men and women by their legal immigration status, level of education, and birthplace.
Immigration increases total economic output, though not necessarily output per capita. It also affects the federal budget through the taxes that foreign-born people pay and the government programs in which they participate.
Proposals to modify U.S. immigration policy vary greatly in terms of their potential impact on the federal budget. CBO details the factors the agency considers when estimating the budgetary effects of proposed changes to immigration policy.