Tax Credits

The U.S. tax code contains many preferences, such as tax credits, that lower the amount of taxes owed. Some of those tax credits are “refundable,” which means that people can receive payments from the government if the amount of their credit exceeds their other tax liabilities. CBO analyzes the effects on the economy and the federal budget of existing tax credits and possible changes to tax credits.

  • Report

    In 2020, the coronavirus pandemic and the ensuing federal response had significant effects on the distribution of household income. Income inequality before transfers and taxes increased, but inequality after transfers and taxes decreased.

  • Presentation

    CBO regularly analyzes the distribution of income in the United States and how it has changed over time. This slide deck presents the distributions of household income, means-tested transfers, and federal taxes between 1979 and 2020.

  • Report

    CBO issues a volume that contains short descriptions of 59 policy options that would each reduce the federal budget deficit by less than $300 billion over the next 10 years.

  • Report

    By providing financial support to households, businesses, and state and local governments, federal laws enacted in response to the 2020 coronavirus pandemic will offset part of the deterioration in economic conditions brought about by the pandemic.