Science and Research and Development

The federal government plays a role in science and in research and development (R&D) by providing funding and by setting policies that affect scientific activities and R&D in the private sector. CBO's work in this area addresses a wide range of specific issues.

  • Report November 18, 2015

    In fiscal year 2015, the federal government supported the development, production, and use of fuels and energy technologies through tax preferences totaling $15.8 billion and spending by the Department of Energy totaling $5.4 billion.

  • Report November 17, 2014

    The federal government influences innovation through two broad channels: spending and tax policies, and the legal and regulatory systems. Policymakers have a number of options for spurring additional innovation.

  • Report December 18, 2013

    In 2012, the federal government spent $531 billion on investment—for physical capital; research and development; and education and training—which represented 15 percent of federal spending and 3 percent of GDP.

  • Report September 20, 2012

    CBO's report assesses how the credits affect the relative cost of owning an electric vehicle, and how cost-effectively the credits reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Report June 28, 2012

    CBO’s analysis suggests that the projected high cost of using CCS means that current federal programs are unlikely to support widespread use of the technology. The study discusses several other options that lawmakers might consider.