Climate and Environment

  • Report

    The Renewable Fuel Standard: Issues for 2014 and Beyond

    Using the rising amounts of renewable transportation fuels required by the Renewable Fuel Standard will be difficult. CBO looks at how those requirements and alternatives would affect fuel and food prices and greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Report

    Border Adjustments for Economywide Policies That Impose a Price on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    A carbon tax or cap-and-trade program could make emission-intensive U.S. products less competitive and increase emissions overseas. Import tariffs related to emissions could reduce those effects but would be hard to implement.

  • Report

    Effects of a Carbon Tax on the Economy and the Environment

    A carbon tax’s effect on the economy depends on how lawmakers would use revenues generated by the tax. The tax would help reduce U.S. emissions but would have only a modest effect on the Earth’s climate without a worldwide effort.

  • Report

    Effects of Federal Tax Credits for the Purchase of Electric Vehicles

    CBO's report assesses how the credits affect the relative cost of owning an electric vehicle, and how cost-effectively the credits reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Report

    Federal Efforts to Reduce the Cost of Capturing and Storing Carbon Dioxide

    CBO’s analysis suggests that the projected high cost of using CCS means that current federal programs are unlikely to support widespread use of the technology. The study discusses several other options that lawmakers might consider.

  • Report

    Energy Security in the United States

    Improving energy security—the ability of U.S. households and businesses to accommodate disruptions of supply in energy markets—requires considering policies related to the nation’s supply of and demand for oil.

  • Report

    Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases

    Human activities produce large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), and thus contribute to global warming. The use of fossil fuels is the primary source of CO2 emissions, but the removal of trees from forested land has also contributed.