The federal government provides financial support for state and local governments, imposes restrictions on the activities of those governments, and offers incentives for those governments to undertake or not undertake certain activities. The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) ensures that, during the legislative process, the Congress receives information about restrictions on state, local, and tribal governments (and on private entities) known as federal mandates. Specifically, CBO produces mandate statements for each committee-approved bill.
State and Local Governments
Mar 2014 - Of the 437 bills CBO reviewed in 2013, 39 contained intergovernmental mandates and 53 contained private-sector mandates. Of the 72 public laws enacted in 2013, 3 contain intergovernmental mandates and 8 contain private-sector mandates.
Dec 2013 - In 2012, the federal government spent $531 billion on investment—for physical capital; research and development; and education and training—which represented 15 percent of federal spending and 3 percent of GDP.
Mar 2013 - In 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments, accounting for 17 percent of federal outlays and a quarter of spending by states and localities. Nearly half of that amount was for Medicaid.
Apr 2012 - Testimony by Frank Sammartino, Assistant Director for Tax Analysis, before the Committee on Finance, United States Senate
May 2011 - CBO discusses two approaches to calculating the present value of a plans liabilities.
- Cost EstimateSeptember 12, 2014
- Cost EstimateJune 26, 2014
- ReportJune 11, 2014
- PresentationJune 11, 2014
Answers to Questions for the Record Following a Hearing on New Routes for Funding and Financing Highways and Transit Conducted by the Senate Committee on FinanceReportJune 9, 2014
- ReportMay 6, 2014
- ReportMarch 27, 2014
- ReportMarch 5, 2014
Use this menu to filter CBO's publications by topic. From January 2011 forward, all the agency's products are categorized by topic. Cost estimates released prior to the 112th Congress are not categorized by topic.