According to the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995, federal mandates include requirements imposed on state, local, or tribal governments or on entities in the private sector that are not conditions of aid or tied to participation in voluntary federal programs. CBO identifies such mandates in bills that are approved by authorizing committees (and, when requested, for other legislation) and provides an estimate of the costs associated with the mandates.

  • Report March 27, 2014

    Of the 437 bills CBO reviewed in 2013, 39 contained intergovernmental mandates and 53 contained private-sector mandates. Of the 72 public laws enacted in 2013, 3 contain intergovernmental mandates and 8 contain private-sector mandates.

  • Report January 15, 2013

    CBO analyzes pending federal legislation and enacted laws to identify private-sector mandates, which are enforceable duties imposed on entities in the private sector. About 12% of the laws enacted between 2001 and 2011 impose such mandates.

  • Report July 14, 2009

    UMRA took effect in 1996; since then the Congress has enacted few federal mandates, as defined in the law, that have imposed significant costs on state and local governments.