Mandatory Spending Options (Other than those primarily for health-related programs)

Option Title Savings, 2014–2023* (Billions of Dollars)
1 Change the Terms and Conditions for Federal Oil and Gas Leasing 6
2 Limit Enrollment in Department of Agriculture Conservation Programs 13
3 Reduce Subsidies in the Crop Insurance Program 27
4 Eliminate Direct Payments to Agricultural Producers 25
5 Reduce Subsidies to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac 19
6 Reduce or Eliminate Subsidized Loans for Undergraduate Students 18 to 41
7 Eliminate the Add-On to Pell Grants That Is Funded With Mandatory Spending 76
8 Increase Federal Insurance Premiums for Private Pension Plans 5
9 Eliminate Concurrent Receipt of Retirement Pay and Disability Compensation for Disabled Veterans 108
10 Reduce the Amounts of Federal Pensions 6
11 Tighten Eligibility and Determinations of Income for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program 50
12 Eliminate Subsidies for Certain Meals in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs 10
13 Convert Multiple Assistance Programs for Lower-Income People Into Smaller Block Grants to States 404
14 Eliminate Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Children 103
15 Link Initial Social Security Benefits to Average Prices Instead of Average Earnings 58 to 93
16 Raise the Full Retirement Age for Social Security 58
17 Lengthen by Three Years the Computation Period for Social Security Benefits 43
18 Reduce Social Security Benefits for New Beneficiaries by 15 Percent 188
19 Eliminate Eligibility for Starting Social Security Disability Benefits at Age 62 or Later 11
20 Require Social Security Disability Insurance Applicants to Have Worked More in Recent Years 35
21 Narrow Eligibility for Veterans' Disability Compensation by Excluding Certain Disabilities Unrelated to Military Duties 20
22 Restrict VA's Individual Unemployability Benefits to Disabled Veterans Who Are Younger Than the Full Retirement Age for Social Security 15
23 Use an Alternative Measure of Inflation to Index Social Security and Other Mandatory Programs 162

Discretionary Spending Options (Other than those primarily for health-related programs)

Option Title Savings, 2014–2023* (Billions of Dollars)
1 Reduce the Size of the Military to Satisfy Caps Under the Budget Control Act 495
2 Cap Increases in Basic Pay for Military Service Members 25
3 Replace Some Military Personnel With Civilian Employees 19
4 Replace the Joint Strike Fighter Program With F-16s and F/A-18s 37
5 Cancel the Army's Ground Combat Vehicle Program 11
6 Stop Building Ford Class Aircraft Carriers 10
7 Reduce the Number of Ballistic Missile Submarines 11
8 Cancel the Littoral Combat Ship Program 12
9 Defer Development of a New Long-Range Bomber 24
10 Reduce Funding for International Affairs Programs 114
11 Eliminate Human Space Exploration Programs 73
12 Reduce Department of Energy Funding for Energy Technology Development 9
13 Eliminate Certain Forest Service Programs 5
14 Eliminate the International Trade Administration's Trade Promotion Activities 3
15 Limit Highway Funding to Expected Highway Revenues 65
16 Eliminate Grants to Large and Medium-Sized Airports 8
17 Increase Fees for Aviation Security 11
18 Eliminate Subsidies for Amtrak 15
19 Eliminate Capital Investment Grants for Transit Systems 14
20 Restrict Pell Grants to the Neediest Students 1 to 68
21 Eliminate Federal Funding for National Community Service and Senior Community Service Employment Programs 11
22 Reduce Federal Funding for the Arts and Humanities 5
23 Increase Payments by Tenants in Federally Assisted Housing 22
24 Reduce the Annual Across-the-Board Adjustment for Federal Civilian Employees' Pay 53
25 Reduce the Size of the Federal Workforce Through Attrition 43
26 Impose Fees to Cover the Cost of Government Regulations and Charge for Services Provided to the Private Sector 21
27 Repeal the Davis-Bacon Act 13
28 Eliminate or Reduce Funding for Certain Grants to State and Local Governments 55

Revenue Options (Other than those primarily related to health)

Option Title Savings, 2014–2023* (Billions of Dollars)
1 Increase Individual Income Tax Rates 98 to 694
2 Implement a New Minimum Tax on Adjusted Gross Income 76
3 Raise the Tax Rates on Long-Term Capital Gains and Dividends by 2 Percentage Points 53
4 Use an Alternative Measure of Inflation to Index Some Parameters of the Tax Code 140
5 Convert the Mortgage Interest Deduction to a 15 Percent Tax Credit 52
6 Eliminate the Deduction for State and Local Taxes 954
7 Curtail the Deduction for Charitable Giving 212
8 Limit the Value of Itemized Deductions 71 to 146
9 Include Employer-Paid Premiums for Income Replacement Insurance in Employees’ Taxable Income 326
10 Include Investment Income From Life Insurance and Annuities in Taxable Income 210
11 Tax Carried Interest as Ordinary Income 17
12 Include All Income That U.S. Citizens Earn Abroad in Taxable Income 89
13 Tax Social Security and Railroad Retirement Benefits in the Same Way That Distributions From Defined Benefit Pensions Are Taxed 388
14 Further Limit Annual Contributions to Retirement Plans 89
15 Eliminate the Tax Exemption for New Qualified Private Activity Bonds 31
16 Eliminate Certain Tax Preferences for Education Expenses 155
17 Lower the Investment Income Limit for the Earned Income Tax Credit and Extend That Limit to the Refundable Portion of the Child Tax Credit 11
18 Increase the Maximum Taxable Earnings for the Social Security Payroll Tax 460
19 Expand Social Security Coverage to Include Newly Hired State and Local Government Employees 81
20 Increase the Payroll Tax Rate for Medicare Hospital Insurance by 1 Percentage Point 859
21 Tax All Pass-Through Business Owners Under SECA and Impose a Material Participation Standard 129
22 Increase Taxes That Finance the Federal Share of the Unemployment Insurance System 14 to 15
23 Increase Corporate Income Tax Rates by 1 Percentage Point 113
24 Repeal the “LIFO” and “Lower of Cost or Market” Inventory Accounting Methods 112
25 Repeal Certain Tax Preferences for Extractive Industries 34
26 Extend the Period for Depreciating the Cost of Certain Investments 272
27 Repeal the Deduction for Domestic Production Activities 192
28 Repeal the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit 41
29 Modify the Rules for the Sourcing of Income From Exports 6
30 Determine Foreign Tax Credits on a Pooling Basis 44
31 Increase Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels by 35 Cents and Index for Inflation 452
32 Increase All Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages to $16 per Proof Gallon 64
33 Impose a Tax on Financial Transactions 180
34 Impose a Fee on Large Financial Institutions 64
35 Impose a Tax on Emissions of Greenhouse Gases 1,060
36 Increase Federal Civilian Employees’ Contributions to Their Pensions 19