H.R. 5428 would require the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer several research, development, and demonstration grant programs aimed at modernizing the electric grid, including smart grid modeling, developing hybrid energy systems, and technologies to integrate electric vehicles onto the electric grid. The bill also would require DOE to provide technical assistance to grant recipients, establish an advisory committee, and report to the Congress. CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 5428 would cost about $1.2 billion over the 2020-2025 period.
For this estimate, CBO assumes that the bill will be enacted in fiscal year 2020 and that the authorized and estimated amounts will be appropriated each year. Estimated outlays are based on historical spending patterns for similar activities. The bill would authorize the appropriation of specific amounts each year over the 2020-2024 period for most of the activities in the bill, but does not specify an amount for section 4 for activities related to grid resilience. Using information from DOE, CBO estimates that the department allocated $57 million in 2020 for research and development activities on grid resilience that are similar to the activities authorized under section 4. CBO estimates that the department would need about the same amount each year, adjusted for inflation, to continue grid resilience activities, over the 2021-2025 period.