November 2020

  • Between 1995 and 2017, the balance of outstanding federal student loan debt increased from $187 billion to $1.4 trillion (in 2017 dollars). CBO examines factors that contributed to that growth, including changes to student loan policies and how they affected borrowing and repayment.

  • In fiscal year 2020, the federal budget deficit totaled $3.1 trillion—more than triple the shortfall recorded in fiscal year 2019. The deficit in 2020 was equal to 14.9 percent of GDP, up from 4.6 percent in 2019 and 3.8 percent in 2018.