Budget Options

  • Report

    Budgeting for Federal Investment

    This report examines approaches to budgeting that would distinguish expenditures for investment in physical capital, education, and research and development from other expenditures.

  • Report

    Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2021 to 2030

    CBO periodically issues a compendium of policy options and their effects on the federal budget. This document provides estimates of the budgetary savings from 83 options that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues.

  • Report

    Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2019 to 2028

    CBO periodically issues a volume of options—this year’s installment presents 121—that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues. CBO’s website allows users to filter options by topic, date, and other categories.

  • Report

    A Premium Support System for Medicare: Updated Analysis of Illustrative Options

    CBO presents new estimates of the budgetary effects of options for a premium support system for Medicare and examines the reasons for the changes in the estimates, including changes in law that have affected the Medicare program.

  • Report

    Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2017 to 2026

    CBO periodically issues a volume of options—this year’s installment presents 115—that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues over the next decade. The report is available both as a PDF and in a searchable format.

  • Report

    Social Security Policy Options, 2015

    CBO analyzes 36 policy options commonly proposed by policymakers and analysts. Most of them would improve Social Security’s long-term finances, but only a few would significantly postpone the combined trust funds’ exhaustion date.

  • Report

    Child Nutrition Programs: Spending and Policy Options

    Since 1990, real spending for child nutrition programs more than doubled—to $20 billion in 2014. CBO expects that increases in food prices and demographic changes will cause spending to rise further in the future.

  • Report

    Federal Housing Assistance for Low-Income Households

    CBO describes federal housing assistance to low-income households and how it has changed since 2000, provides information about the households that receive assistance, and assesses options for altering that assistance.

  • Report

    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Spending and Policy Options

    This report examines spending on TANF, how TANF compares to other low-income support programs, and the effects of TANF on employment. CBO also analyzes policy options that would change the program’s funding and requirements for states.

  • Report

    Veterans' Disability Compensation: Trends and Policy Options

    From 2000 to 2013, the number of veterans receiving VA disability payments rose by nearly 55 percent, and spending for those benefits almost tripled. How might changes in VA's disability compensation program affect the federal budget?

  • Report

    Choices for Deficit Reduction: An Update

    Federal debt is projected to rise significantly over the long term. What policy changes could reduce future deficits and thus lower the trajectory of federal debt? What criteria might be used to evaluate those policy changes?

  • Report

    Health-Related Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2014 to 2023

    This document is a reprint of Chapter 5 of CBO's publication Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2014 to 2023 (November 2013).

  • Report

    Raising the Age of Eligibility for Medicare to 67: An Updated Estimate of the Budgetary Effects

    CBO's new estimate of the net budgetary savings from adopting this policy is much lower than its earlier estimates for proposals to raise Medicare’s eligibility age. This report describes CBO’s new estimate and the reasons for the change.

  • Report

    Testimony on Using the Chained CPI to Index Social Security, Other Federal Programs, and the Tax Code for Inflation

    How does the chained consumer price index (CPI) differ from the traditional CPI and what would be the budgetary effects of using the chained CPI to make automatic adjustments in Social Security, other federal programs, and the tax code?

  • Report

    Choices for Deficit Reduction

    Are fiscal rules a useful tool for achieving budgetary goals? View the appendix of this report to learn more.

  • Report

    Policy Options for the Social Security Disability Insurance Program

    The Disability Insurance program provided benefits to 8.3 million disabled workers in 2011. By 2022, CBO projects, the program will provide benefits to over 10 million disabled workers and spending on benefits will exceed $190 billion.

  • Report

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

    One in seven U.S. residents received benefits through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in 2011, at a total cost of $78 billion. Spending on SNAP benefits more than doubled between 2007 and 2011.

  • Report

    Raising the Ages of Eligibility for Medicare and Social Security

    Raising the ages at which people can collect Medicare and Social Security would reduce federal spending and increase federal revenues by inducing some people to work longer.

  • Report

    Social Security Policy Options

    CBO anticipates that starting in 2016, if current laws remain in place, the program's annual spending will regularly exceed its tax revenues.

  • Report

    Costs and Policy Options for Federal Student Loan Programs

    This CBO study compares the budgetary and fair-value costs of the federal student loan programs. It also looks at several options for modifying those programs.