H.R. 734 would amend Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance. As a condition of federal funding, H.R. 734 would require such institutions to prohibit a person whose biological sex at birth was male from participating in an athletic program or activity that is designated for women or girls, unless such participation does not deny a female of an opportunity or benefit to participate.
Title IX applies to local education agencies, elementary and secondary schools, post-secondary institutions, libraries, and other educational institutions that receive federal funds. The primary means of enforcing compliance with Title IX is through voluntary agreements between institutions and the enforcing agency, and termination of federal funds is a last resort.