H.R. 5441 would expand regulation of and increase penalties for soring, the practice of inflicting pain to cause a horse to exaggerate its gait. CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 5441 would have an insignificant effect on both direct spending and revenues over the 2023-2032 period stemming from authority to collect civil and criminal penalties. CBO estimates that implementing the legislation would cost $8 million over the 2023-2027 period, assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts. The legislation would impose a private-sector mandate as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act that would not exceed the annual threshold of $184 million in 2022 (adjusted annually for inflation). The legislation contains no intergovernmental mandates.