S. 2510 would authorize appropriations for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to establish the National Integrated Heat Health Information System Program to study extreme heat policy, research, preparedness, and response. The program also would provide financial assistance to state and local governments, academic institutions, and other entities for research and public outreach concerning heat risks. CBO estimates that enacting S. 2510 would not affect direct spending or revenues. CBO estimates that implementing the bill would increase discretionary costs by $31 million over the 2023-2027 period, assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts. The bill contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.