S. 4524 would prohibit the judicial enforceability in federal, state, and tribal courts of clauses within contracts that limit the ability of people to report or discuss alleged acts of sexual assault or harassment that would harm the reputation of the other party to the contract, such as an employer. The changes would apply to claims that arise on or after the date of enactment of the legislation. CBO estimates that enacting S. 4524 would have an insignificant effect on direct spending and revenues over the 2023‑2032 period. CBO has not estimated the discretionary costs of implementing the legislation. The legislation would impose a private-sector mandate as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. CBO cannot determine whether the cost of that mandate would exceed the annual threshold of $184 million in 2022 (adjusted annually for inflation). The legislation contains no intergovernmental mandates.