S. 3846 would authorize the appropriation of $50 million for each fiscal year over the 2022-2026 period for the Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program. Under that program, the Department of Justice awards grants to state and local governments to provide treatment for mental health and substance use disorders for people who come into contact with the criminal justice system. The legislation also would authorize the appropriation of $2 million to the department in each fiscal year to report on the prevalence of mental illness among offenders. CBO estimates that enacting S. 3846 would not affect direct spending or revenues. CBO estimates that implementing the legislation would cost $187 million over the 2023-2027 period; any spending would be subject to the availability of appropriated funds. The legislation contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.