S. 2340 would protect the privacy of federal judges by making it unlawful for data brokers or other entities to post the personal information of protected officials online. The bill also would require the U.S. Marshals Service and the federal judiciary to expand the physical and electronic protection of federal judges, judicial officials, and their family members. Finally, the bill would authorize the Department of Justice to make grants to states to create programs that protect the privacy of judicial officials. CBO estimates that enacting S. 2340 would have an insignificant effect on direct spending and revenues over the 2023-2032 period. CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost $597 million over the 2023-2027 period; any spending would be subject to the availability of appropriated funds. The bill would impose private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act that would not exceed the annual threshold of $184 million in 2022 (adjusted annually for inflation). The bill contains no intergovernmental mandates.