S. 2368 would amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The bill would authorize the appropriation of $741.5 million annually through 2029 for nuclear energy research, development, and the licensing of certain nuclear facilities. (In 2019, the Department of Energy (DOE) allocated $756 million of appropriated funds to carry out programs authorized by S. 2368.)
Based on historical spending patterns, CBO estimates that implementing S. 2368 would cost $2.5 billion over the 2020-2024 period and $4.2 billion after 2024. The costs of the legislation (detailed in Table 1) fall within budget function 270 (energy).