H.R. 6730 would prohibit federal courts from issuing injunctions that restrain defendants from enforcing policies against non-parties to civil actions. CBO expects that the bill would limit the issuance of nationwide injunctions. In recent years, district courts have issued dozens of nationwide injunctions that have temporarily stopped the executive branch from implementing immigration, environmental, and other policies. Such injunctions affect the scope of and timeframes for implementing new policies and programs, and sometimes affect the amount and pace of federal spending.
CBO cannot predict the policies that will be issued by the executive branch in the future and subsequently challenged in the courts. CBO expects that enacting H.R. 6730 could affect the number and nature of future civil actions, how the executive branch responds to such lawsuits, and how the courts provide relief to plaintiffs. However, CBO has no basis to estimate those effects and cannot determine whether or how the bill would affect nationwide injunctions currently in effect. Accordingly, CBO cannot estimate the magnitude or direction of any budgetary effects of the bill. Because enacting H.R. 6730 could affect direct spending and revenues, pay-as-you-go procedures apply.
CBO cannot estimate whether enacting H.R. 6730 would significantly increase net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2029.
H.R. 6730 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.