S. 3178 would newly establish lynching (as defined in the bill) as a federal crime; thus, the government could pursue some cases that it otherwise may not be able to prosecute. CBO expects that the bill would apply to a relatively small number of cases, however, so any increase in costs for law enforcement, court proceedings, or prison operations would not be significant. Any such spending would be subject to the availability of appropriated funds.
Because people prosecuted and convicted under S. 3178 could be subject to criminal fines, the federal government might collect additional fines under the bill. Criminal fines are recorded as revenues, deposited in the Crime Victims Fund, and later spent without further appropriation action. CBO expects that any additional revenues and associated direct spending would not be significant because the bill would probably affect a small number of cases.
Because enacting S. 3178 would affect direct spending and revenues, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. However, CBO estimates that any such effects would be insignificant in any year.
CBO estimates that enacting S. 3178 would not increase net direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2029.
S. 3178 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.