|Savings, 2015–2024 (Billions of Dollars)
|Limit Medical Malpractice Torts
|Introduce Minimum Out-of-Pocket Requirements Under TRICARE for Life
|Change the Cost-Sharing Rules for Medicare and Restrict Medigap Insurance
|53 to 111
|Increase Premiums for Parts B and D of Medicare
|25 to 314
|Require Manufacturers to Pay a Minimum Rebate on Drugs Covered Under Part D of Medicare for Low-Income Beneficiaries
|Modify TRICARE Enrollment Fees and Cost Sharing for Working-Age Military Retirees
|19 to 73a
|Reduce or Constrain Funding for the National Institutes of Health
|12 to 35
|Increase the Excise Tax on Cigarettes by 50 Cents per Pack
Sources: Congressional Budget Office; staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation.
For options primarily affecting mandatory spending or revenues, savings sometimes would derive from changes in both. When that is the case, the savings shown include effects on both mandatory spending and revenues. For options primarily affecting discretionary spending, the savings shown are the decrease in discretionary outlays. That same approach applies for the savings shown for health options; most are mandatory spending options or revenue options, although 77 and 78 are discretionary spending options.
For most discretionary spending options, the decrease in outlays is presented relative to CBO’s baseline projections for individual components of discretionary spending, which incorporate the assumption that current appropriations continue in later years with adjustments for projected inflation. In total, the funding projected in the inflation-adjusted amounts is greater than the caps on discretionary funding. Some of the discretionary options related to defense (24, 25, 26, and 27) are measured relative to the Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) estimates of the costs for its plans rather than CBO’s baseline projections. The costs of DoD’s plans are greater than the caps on defense funding. To reduce deficits through changes in discretionary spending, lawmakers would need to reduce the statutory funding caps below the levels already established under current law or enact appropriations below those caps; the options shown could be used to accomplish either of those objectives.
a. Savings do not encompass all budgetary effects.