Federal spending on highways totaled $46 billion in 2014, mostly through formula grants to state and local governments. However, that spending does not correspond very well with how the roads are used. Historically, less than half of the funding has been tied directly to the amount of travel on the roads.

CBO examines three approaches lawmakers could consider to make highway spending more productive: charging drivers for their highway use, using benefit-cost analysis to allocate spending, and linking spending to performance.

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Over the next decade, premiums for private health insurance will grow by about 5 percent per year, on average, CBO estimates. In 2025, the average premium for an employment-based insurance plan is projected to be about $10,000 for single coverage and about $24,500 for family coverage.

Premiums for private health insurance are affected by various federal subsidies and regulations, and they, in turn, affect the federal budget. In 2016, the federal government will subsidize most premiums, at a cost of roughly $300 billion.

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CBO estimates that the 2016 deficit will be $544 billion, raising debt held by the public to 76 percent of GDP–the highest level in over fifty years. By 2026, under current law, the debt is projected to reach 86 percent of GDP.

CBO expects the economy’s output to increase by 2.7 percent this year and 2.5 percent in 2017, but it anticipates slower growth in subsequent years, mainly because of slow growth in the labor supply.

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Under the Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) five-year plan spanning the years 2016 through 2020, inflation-adjusted costs for the department’s base budget would be roughly constant over that period, CBO estimates. Costs would climb thereafter, primarily because of DoD’s plans to develop and purchase new weapons. The Administration’s planned budgets for DoD and other national defense activities exceed the limits set by the Budget Control Act beginning in 2017.

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View CBO’s budget infographics to see how much the federal government spent and took in during fiscal year 2015, as well as broader trends in the budget over the past few decades.

The Federal Budget in 2015
Mandatory Spending in 2015
Discretionary Spending in 2015
Revenues in 2015

Approaches to Making Federal Highway Spending More Productive
Private Health Insurance Premiums and Federal Policy
The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2016 to 2026
Long-Term Implications of the 2016 Future Years Defense Program
CBO Releases New Budget Infographics