In 2018, 46 million foreign-born people lived in the United States, accounting for 14 percent of the total population. Three-quarters of them were here legally, CBO estimates. The population with legal status increased steadily from 20 million in 1998 to 35 million in 2018. The increase in the population without legal status was smaller; that number grew from an estimated 8 million in 1998 to a high of more than 11 million in 2007 and has changed little since then. In this report, CBO examines the employment and earnings of men and women by their legal immigration status, level of education, and birthplace, focusing on people between the ages of 25 and 54.