H.R. 2494 would authorize the Administration to promote the efforts of foreign governments and regional entities in countering wildlife trafficking, in particular by providing technical assistance and support to park rangers and law enforcement officers. In total, and assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts, CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 2494 would cost $6 million over the 2016-2020 period. Pay-as-you-go procedures apply to this legislation because enacting the bill would affect direct spending and revenues; however, CBO estimates those effects would not be significant.
CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation estimate the bill would:
H.R. 1138 would require federal agencies to manage 276,000 acres of federal land located in Idaho for conservation purposes. The bill also would require the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service to convey parcels of federal land totaling roughly 700 acres to various local governments in Idaho. Based on information provided by the affected agencies and assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts, CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost less than $500,000 over the 2016-2020 period. Because enacting H.R.
Estimate for H.J.Res. 61
Under S. 1182, joint sales agreements (JSAs) entered into before June 19, 2014, would be exempt from provisions of a rule limiting those agreements that was adopted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) earlier in that year. A JSA is an agreement between one television broadcast station that sells advertising time on behalf of a competing station (the other party in the agreement) in the same market.
H.R. 1634 would direct the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to improve the planning, documentation, and management of certain programs to acquire border security technology. The bill also would require DHS to submit a plan to the Congress to ensure that such programs comply with federal acquisition policies.
CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) estimate the amendment would:
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is responsible for ensuring that workers who require unescorted access to secure areas of airports are vetted in accordance with security-related requirements. Such vetting procedures include checks of individuals’ criminal backgrounds and immigration status as well as checks against terrorist databases. H.R.
The Congressional Budget Office is providing two estimates of the costs of reauthorizing the Export-Import Bank through 2019 under Senate amendment number 2327, the Export-Import Bank Reform and Reauthorization Act of 2015. One estimate is based on procedures currently used in the federal budget as prescribed by the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (FCRA). The other estimate is based on the market value of the federal government’s obligations, often termed a fair-value estimate.
Estimate on a FCRA Basis
H.R. 487 would authorize the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma to lease, sell, warrant, or otherwise transfer any tribal property that is not held in trust by the federal government for the benefit of the tribe. Based on information provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, CBO estimates that implementing the legislation would have no effect on the federal budget.
Enacting H.R. 487 would not affect direct spending or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply. Any receipts from the transfer of the land under the legislation would be paid directly to the tribe.
S. 1705 would authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2016 for intelligence activities of the U.S. government, for the Intelligence Community Management Account (ICMA), and for the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System (CIARDS).
S. 1599 would prohibit an employer from discriminating against an employee or other agent of the employer who provides information or assists in an investigation of a violation of federal antitrust law. The legislation also would authorize an individual who alleges discrimination to seek relief. CBO estimates that enacting S. 1599 would increase the number of complaints filed with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which administers employee protection laws (known as whistleblower programs).
H.R. 158 would make administrative changes to the visa waiver program, under which citizens of certain countries may visit the United States temporarily without a visa, and would require the Department of Homeland Security to prepare several reports to the Congress on national security issues affected by the visa waiver program.
S. 1603 would require the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), with assistance from the Department of Defense (DoD), to establish a program to recruit members of the armed forces who are leaving the military to serve as Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers. The program would include placing DHS officials at certain recruiting events and conducting outreach efforts to educate certain members of the armed forces about available jobs with CBP. The bill also would require DHS and DoD to report annually to the Congress about the progress of the program.
H.R. 2315 would establish consistent criteria for states to determine state taxation and employer withholding for nonresidents who work in a state. CBO estimates that federal taxation and employer withholding would not be affected by the legislation and that implementing the bill would have no effect on the federal budget. Enacting H.R. 2315 would not affect direct spending or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
S. 1253 would modify Medicare coverage and payment rules for negative pressure wound therapy equipment that includes a disposable pump. CBO estimates that enacting S. 1253 would reduce direct spending by about $21 million over the 2016-2025 period. Pay-as-you-go procedures apply because enacting the legislation would affect direct spending. Enacting the legislation would not affect revenues.
S. 1253 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.
H.R. 1994 would limit the amount of awards and bonuses paid to employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and would modify several of the department’s personnel policies. In addition, the bill would prescribe a comprehensive process for handling complaints by whistleblowers. CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 1994 would, on net, decrease costs by $145 million over the 2016-2020 period, assuming appropriation levels are reduced by those amounts.
H.R. 2127 would require the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for screening passengers at airport security checkpoints, to limit access to expedited screening processes to certain individuals. Under the bill, only passengers who are members of a TSA trusted traveler program, the military, or a group considered to be low risk would be eligible for expedited screening.
Preliminary estimate of the effects on Direct Spending of H.R. 1875
S. 607 would extend the Rural Community Hospital (RCH) demonstration program for an additional five years, through the end of calendar year 2021. Under the demonstration program, Medicare pays certain hospitals in rural areas on the basis of the reasonable costs they incur instead of using the payment rates determined by Medicare’s Acute Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS). CBO estimates that enacting S. 607 would increase direct spending by $27 million in fiscal year 2016 but that this additional spending would be offset in future years.
H.R. 2770 specifies requirements and procedures regarding the Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA’s) maintenance of security-related technology deployed at airports. Based on information from TSA, CBO estimates that implementing this legislation would have no significant effect on the federal budget. According to the agency, the new requirements and procedures specified in the bill are largely consistent with existing efforts. As a result, CBO estimates that any changes in spending under H.R. 2770 would be negligible and would be subject to the availability of appropriated funds.
H.R. 2843 would require the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to undertake efforts to expand enrollment in the PreCheck program. Through that program, air travelers voluntarily apply to be prescreened using biographic and biometric information to determine whether they qualify for expedited screening at airport security checkpoints. The bill would direct TSA to publish standards to allow private-sector entities to provide certain services to support increased enrollment and to specify other requirements for the program’s expansion.
S. 313 would allow physical therapists in areas with a shortage of health professionals, medically underserved areas, and rural areas to utilize substitute physical therapists, in what are known as locum tenens arrangements, under the Medicare program.
CBO estimates that enacting the legislation would increase direct spending by $18 million over the 2016-2025 period. Because the legislation would affect direct spending, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. Enacting the bill would not affect revenues.
Under current law, a physician or other professional may be subject to payment reductions for services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries if the provider fails to achieve “meaningful use” of electronic health record (EHR) technology. The meaningful use standard requires that at least half of the provider’s patient encounters occur in a setting that uses certified EHR technology. S.
H.R. 1599 would establish a program, to be administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), to certify genetically engineered food. The bill also would prohibit an unregulated plant that is genetically engineered from being introduced into interstate commerce for use in food unless it was certified to be safe by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). USDA would be required to publish information about certain genetically engineered plants intended for use in food on a public website.
S. 1250 would authorize the appropriation of funds for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to award grants to states and tribal governments for activities related to preventing carbon monoxide poisoning. The CPSC also would be required to report to the Congress on the implementation of the grant program. Based on the spending patterns for similar grants, CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost $8 million over the 2016-2020 period, assuming appropriation of the specified amounts.
S. 466 would authorize the appropriation of $31 million for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to identify and publish quality measures for maternal and infant health and to award grants to develop or expand collaborative activities related to maternity and infant care quality. CBO estimates that implementing S. 466 would cost $31 million over the 2016-2020 period, assuming appropriation of the specified amounts. Enacting S. 466 would not affect direct spending or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
S. 861 would aim to reduce improper payments in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. CBO estimates that enacting the bill would increase revenues by $20 million over the 2016-2025 period. Because the legislation would affect revenues, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. Enacting the legislation would not affect direct spending.
S. 861 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.
H.R. 571 would limit the amount of awards and bonuses paid to employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and would modify the department’s personnel policies for employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES). In addition, the bill would prescribe a comprehensive process for handling complaints by whistleblowers. CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 571 would, on net, decrease costs by $36 million over the 2016-2020 period, assuming appropriation levels are reduced by those amounts.
H.R. 2604 would extend—until September 30, 2022—a provision of current law that exempts institutions of higher education from regulation under federal antitrust laws when awarding need-based student aid. Under current law, the provision expires on September 30, 2015. With this extension, colleges and universities would be able to continue to collaborate, but CBO expects those activities would not affect the workload of any federal agency. Thus, CBO estimates that implementing the bill would not have a significant effect on the federal budget.