Of the 224 public laws enacted in 2014, 16 contain intergovernmental mandates and 26 contain private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). None of the intergovernmental mandates and five of the private-sector mandates are estimated to have annual costs that exceed the thresholds specified in UMRA ($76 million and $152 million, respectively).

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CBO has analyzed the effects on the economy stemming from paths for federal revenues and noninterest spending specified by the chairmen of the budget committees and how those macroeconomic effects in turn would affect the federal budget.

Analysis of paths specified by Chairman Enzi

Analysis of paths specified by Chairman Price

CBO’s projections in these reports do not represent an analysis of any specific policies. Read more about CBO’s role in budget resolutions.

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP, provides benefits to low-income households to help them buy food. Some policymakers have expressed a desire to scale back the program significantly to reduce federal spending.

In this report, CBO examines several options for doing so and their effects on households with different amounts of income.

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In order to deter conflict or fight in wars if necessary, the Navy aims to maintain a forward presence—to keep some ships far from U.S. shores in areas that are important to national interests. If the Navy cannot afford to implement its shipbuilding plan, it can sustain its forward presence by using longer deployments, more overseas basing, and more rotating crews, though such methods have some disadvantages.

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Under the President’s proposed budget for 2016, CBO estimates, the federal budget deficit would decline from $486 billion in 2015 to $384 billion in 2016, but then climb in subsequent years, reaching $801 billion in 2025.

Federal debt held by the public would remain in the vicinity of 72 percent or 73 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) throughout the next decade, slightly below the74 percent figure projected for 2015.

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A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2014 Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
Budgetary and Economic Outcomes Under Paths for Federal Revenues and Noninterest Spending Specified by Chairman Enzi and by Chairman Price
The Effects of Potential Cuts in SNAP Spending on Households With Different Amounts of Income
Preserving the Navy's Forward Presence With a Smaller Fleet
An Analysis of the President's 2016 Budget